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Tube Type FBT Coupler

Tube Type FBT Coupler

Wummary of the tube type FBT coupler FBT splitter, or FBT coupler, is an optical splitter that uses the Fused Biconic Taper (FBT) technique. The FBT technique is a well known industry technology for splitting optical power and/or splitting wavelengths. The fused fiber coupler is created...

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1.Wummary of the tube type FBT coupler

FBT splitter, or FBT coupler, is an optical splitter that uses the Fused Biconic Taper (FBT) technique. The FBT technique is a well known industry technology for splitting optical power and/or splitting wavelengths. The fused fiber coupler is created through a process of fusing two bare fibers like an “X” and pulling the fused section to achieve the desired optical characteristics. FBT couplers are fused in tree structures to combine optical splitting effects to create power ratio output of 1×N or 2×N, where “N” is the number of desired outputs.

1×2 FBT couplers are used to split light with minimal loss from one into two fibers or to merge light from two fibers into one. 1×N tree FBT couplers and N×N star FBT couplers are made with fuse cascade-connecting N-1 pieces of 1×2 and 2×2 couplers respectively. There are mainly three types of FBT coupler splitters.

2.Features of the tube type FBT coupler

Ø Low Insertion loss

Ø Wide Operating Wavelength

Ø Compact Size

Ø Excellent Environmental & Mechanical Stability


3.Applications of the tube type FBT coupler

Ø FTTX Systems

Ø LAN, WAN and Metro Networks

Ø Analog/Digital Passive Optical Networks

Ø CATV Networks

Ø Subscriber Loop

Ø Fiberoptic Instruments


4.Test data of the tube type FBT coupler

Product Type

FBT coupler

Port Configuration


Split Ratio




Grade Type


Fiber Length


Connector Type


Input/Output Cable




Return Loss


Operating Temperature


Storage Temperature


5.Product size(mm) of the tube type FBT coupler






FBT vs. PLC Splitter

(1) Operating Wavelength

FBT splitter can only support three wavelengths: 850nm, 1310nm and 1550nm, which makes its inability to works on other wavelengths. While PLC splitter can support wavelength from 1260 to 1650nm. The adjustable rang of wavelength makes PLC splitter suitable for more applications.


(2) Splitting Ratio

Splitting ratio is decided by the inputs and outputs of an optical cable splitter. The maximum split ratio of FBT splitter is up to 1:32, which means one or two inputs can be splitted into an output maximum of 32 fibers at a time. However, the split ratio of PLC splitter is up to 1:64 – one or two inputs with an output maximum of 64 fibers. Besides, FBT splitter is customisable, and the special types are 1:3, 1:7, 1:11, etc. But PLC splitter is non-customisable, and it has only standard version like 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32 and so on.


(3) Assymetric Attenuation Per Branch

The signal processed by FBT splitters cannot be splitted evenly due to lack of management of the signals, so its transmission distance can be affected. However, PLC splitter can support equal splitter ratios for all branches, so it is more stable.


(4) Failure Rate

FBT splitter is typically used for networks requiring the splitter configuration of less than 4 splits. The larger the split, the larger failure rate. When its splitting ratio is larger than 1:8, more errors will occur and cause higher failure rate. Thus, FBT splitter is more restricted to the number of splits in one coupling. But the failure rate of PLC splitter is much smaller.


(5) Temperature Dependent Loss

In certain areas, temperature can be a crucial factor that affects the insertion loss of optical components. FBT splitter can work stable under the temperature of -5 to 75℃. PLC splitter can work at a wider temperature range of -40 to 85 ℃, providing relatively good performance in the areas of extreme climate.

(6) Price

Owing to the complicated manufacturing technology of PLC splitter, its cost is generally higher than the FBT splitter. If your application is simple and short of funds, FBT splitter is definitely a cost-effective solution.


Although the outer appearance and size of FBT and PLC fiber splitter seem rather similar, their internal technologies and specifications differ in various ways. Over the past few years, splitter technology has made a huge step forward in the past few years by introducing PLC splitter. It has proven itself as a higher reliable type of device compared to the traditional FBT splitter.


8. Latest news

Bell launches full fiber-optic network in Toronto

April 9, 2018

By Lightwave Staff

Canadian operator Bell said it has launched its full fiber-optic network connecting Toronto homes and businesses with fast internet technology, and improved television and media services. The fiber project in Canada's most populated city is part of Bell's initiative to expand its broadband fiber footprint. Providing internet access speeds of up to 1 Gbps with symmetrical upload and downloads using its fiber to the premises (FTTP), Bell says speeds will increase to a minimum of 5 Gbps by 2019, and to over 40 Gbps in the future.

Bell began the $1.5 billion project to deliver 1-Gbps fiber to the home (FTTH) and premises to residents and business in 2015 (see "Bell Canada targets Toronto for gigabit FTTH"). The company worked with the city of Toronto and Toronto Hydro to use installation techniques and new heavy equipment for efficiently rolling out the network with minimal disruption to residents and businesses. This build includes over 10,000 km of new fiber installed on nearly 90,000 Bell and Toronto Hydro poles and underground through more than 10,000 manhole access points, and technology upgrades to 27 Bell central offices in Toronto.

According to Bell, the gigabit fiber internet service enabled by its FTTP will allow customers to download a 10 Mb photo in a tenth of a second, 3 Gb high-definition movie in 24 seconds, or upload a 500 Mb business plan to the cloud in 4 seconds. Fully symmetrical speeds are available at all FTTP internet speed tiers, from 25 and 50 Mbps, to 500 Mbps and 1 Gb, where top upload speed is 940 Mbps. According to Bell, uploads will reach 1 Gb when commercial modem technology catches up to fiber network capabilities in 2019.

Bell delivers fast internet access to the entire home with its new fiber-enabled Whole Home Wi-Fi service, says the company. It also provides the Fibe TV service, which features wireless Whole Home 4K PVR, the Fibe TV app for full mobile control, Restart for starting back up shows in progress or shows aired in the past 30 hours, and Trending for highlights of the country's top TV shows. Bell also offers Alt TV for viewing television on multiple screens, while eliminating the need for a TV set-top box or installation.

This fiber launch follows Bell's announcements of the launch of the Montréal fiber project in 2017, and plans for direct fiber connection expansion across the GTA/905 region around Toronto last month (see "Bell targets CAN$854 million for FTTP in Montréal"). Bell says it currently invests over $4 billion in Canada's next-generation network infrastructure annually to provide fiber connections to home and business, and the country's network of 28 data hosting and cloud computing centers.

"Toronto is a city always planning for the future and this is the kind of major technology infrastructure investment we need to ensure our status as a world-class Smart City," said Toronto Mayor John Tory. "This investment in rolling out the latest network connections to both homes and businesses throughout Toronto is a great example of business leadership supporting a diverse and innovative economic future for our city."

Bell's fiber-optic network stretches to over 240,000 km, and across the Atlantic provinces of Québec, Ontario, and Manitoba. The company delivers fiber to the neighborhood to over 9.2 million homes and business, FTTP connections to more than 3.7 million locations, and anticipates that the total will increase to 4.5 million by the end of 2018.

Bell lists St. John's, Gander, Summerside, Charlottetown, Halifax, Sydney, Moncton and Fredericton in Atlantic Canada, Québec City, Trois-Rivières, Saint-Jérôme and Gatineau in Québec, Cornwall, Kingston, Toronto, North Bay and Sudbury in Ontario, and Steinbach and The Pas in Manitoba as existing all-fiber cities.

For related articles, visit the FTTx Topic Center.

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